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Nevertheless, the printing of books resumed from onwards, with Andronik Timofeevich Nevezha and his son Ivan now heading the Print Yard. Ivan had St.
Basil's Cathedral constructed in Moscow to commemorate the seizure of Kazan. There is a legend that he was so impressed with the structure that he had the architect, Postnik Yakovlev , blinded so that he could never design anything as beautiful again.
However, Postnik Yakovlev really went on to design more churches for Ivan and the walls of the Kazan Kremlin in the early s as well as the chapel over St.
Basil's grave, which was added to St. Basil's Cathedral in , several years after Ivan's death. Although more than one architect was associated with that name, it is believed that the principal architect is the same person.
Other events of the period include the introduction of the first laws restricting the mobility of the peasants, which would eventually lead to serfdom and were instituted during the rule of the future Tsar Boris Godunov in The s brought to Russia hardships that led to a dramatic change of Ivan's policies.
Russia was devastated by a combination of drought: famine; unsuccessful wars against the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth ; Tatar invasions and the sea-trading blockade carried out by the Swedes, Poles and the Hanseatic League.
His first wife, Anastasia Romanovna , died in , which was suspected to be a poisoning. The personal tragedy deeply hurt Ivan and is thought to have affected his personality, if not his mental health.
At the same time, one of Ivan's advisors, Prince Andrei Kurbsky , defected to the Lithuanians, took command of the Lithuanian troops and devastated the Russian region of Velikiye Luki.
That series of treasons made Ivan paranoically suspicious of nobility. On 3 December , Ivan departed Moscow for Aleksandrova Sloboda , where he sent two letters in which he announced his abdication because of the alleged embezzlement and treason of the aristocracy and the clergy.
The boyar court was unable to rule in Ivan's absence and feared the wrath of the Muscovite citizens. A boyar envoy departed for Aleksandrova Sloboda to beg Ivan to return to the throne.
He demanded to be able to execute and confiscate the estates of traitors without interference from the boyar council or church.
Ivan decreed the creation of the oprichnina. That was a separate territory within the borders of Russia, mostly in the territory of the former Novgorod Republic in the north.
Ivan held exclusive power over the territory. The Boyar Council ruled the zemshchina 'land' , the second division of the state.
Ivan also recruited a personal guard known as the Oprichniki. Originally it numbered One known oprichnik was the German adventurer Heinrich von Staden.
The oprichniki enjoyed social and economic privileges under the oprichnina. They owed their allegiance and status to Ivan, not heredity or local bonds.
The first wave of persecutions targeted primarily the princely clans of Russia, notably the influential families of Suzdal. Ivan executed, exiled or forcibly tonsured prominent members of the boyar clans on questionable accusations of conspiracy.
Among those who were executed were the Metropolitan Philip and the prominent warlord Alexander Gorbaty-Shuisky. In , Ivan extended the oprichnina to eight central districts.
Of the 12, nobles, became oprichniki and the rest were expelled. Under the new political system, the oprichniki were given large estates but, unlike the previous landlords, could not be held accountable for their actions.
The men "took virtually all the peasants possessed, forcing them to pay 'in one year as much as [they] used to pay in ten.
The price of grain increased ten times. Conditions under the Oprichnina were worsened by the epidemic, a plague that killed 10, people in Novgorod and to 1, daily in Moscow.
During the grim conditions of the epidemic, a famine and the ongoing Livonian War , Ivan grew suspicious that noblemen of the wealthy city of Novgorod were planning to defect and to place the city itself into the control of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
A Novgorod citizen Petr Volynets warned the tsar about the alleged conspiracy, which modern historians believe to be false. In , Ivan ordered the Oprichniki to raid the city.
The oprichniki burned and pillaged Novgorod and the surrounding villages, and the city has never regained its former prominence.
Casualty figures vary greatly from different sources. The First Pskov Chronicle estimates the number of victims at 60, The massacre of Novgorod consisted of men, women and children that were tied to sleighs and run into the freezing waters of the Volkhov River, which Ivan ordered on the basis of unproved accusations of treason.
He then tortured its inhabitants and killed thousands in a pogrom. The archbishop was also hunted to death. The oprichnina did not live long after the sack of Novgorod.
During the —72 Russo-Crimean War , oprichniki failed to prove themselves worthy against a regular army. In , Ivan abolished the Oprichnina and disbanded his oprichniki.
In , Ivan once again pretended to resign from his title and proclaimed Simeon Bekbulatovich , his statesman of Tatar origin, the new Tsar.
Simeon reigned as a figurehead leader for a year. According to the English envoy Giles Fletcher, the Elder , Simeon acted under Ivan's instructions to confiscate all of the lands that belonged to monasteries, and Ivan pretended to disagree with the decision.
When the throne was returned to Ivan in , he returned some of the confiscated land and kept the rest. However, all of the craftsmen were arrested in Lübeck at the request of Poland and Livonia.
The German merchant companies ignored the new port built by Ivan on the River Narva in and continued to deliver goods in the Baltic ports owned by Livonia.
Russia remained isolated from sea trade. Ivan established close ties with the Kingdom of England. In , Chancellor sailed to the White Sea and continued overland to Moscow, where he visited Ivan's court.
Ivan opened up the White Sea and the port of Arkhangelsk to the company and granted it privilege of trading throughout his reign without paying the standard customs fees.
With the use of English merchants, Ivan engaged in a long correspondence with Elizabeth I of England. While the queen focused on commerce, Ivan was more interested in a military alliance.
During his troubled relations with the boyars, Ivan even asked her for a guarantee to be granted asylum in England if his rule was jeopardised.
Elizabeth agreed if he provided for himself during his stay. Ivan corresponded with overseas Orthodox leaders. In response to a letter of Patriarch Joachim of Alexandria asking him for financial assistance for the Saint Catherine's Monastery , in the Sinai Peninsula , which had suffered by the Turks, Ivan sent in a delegation to Egypt Eyalet by Archdeacon Gennady, who, however, died in Constantinople before he could reach Egypt.
From then on, the embassy was headed by Smolensk merchant Vasily Poznyakov, whose delegation visited Alexandria, Cairo and Sinai; brought the patriarch a fur coat and an icon sent by Ivan and left an interesting account of his two-and-a-half years of travels.
Ivan was the first ruler to begin cooperating with the free cossacks on a large scale. Relations were handled through the Posolsky Prikaz diplomatic department; Moscow sent them money and weapons, while tolerating their freedoms, to draw them into an alliance against the Tatars.
The first evidence of cooperation surfaces in when Ivan ordered the Don Cossacks to attack Crimea. While Ivan was a child, armies of the Kazan Khanate repeatedly raided northeastern Russia.
After his advance was stalled near Murom, Safa Giray was forced to withdraw to his own borders. The reverses undermined Safa Giray's authority in Kazan.
A pro-Russian party, represented by Shahgali , gained enough popular support to make several attempts to take over the Kazan throne.
In , Ivan mounted an expedition to the River Volga to show his support for the pro-Russians. In , the tsar sent his envoy to the Nogai Horde , and they promised to maintain neutrality during the impending war.
The Ar begs and Udmurts submitted to Russian authority as well. In , the wooden fort of Sviyazhsk was transported down the Volga from Uglich all the way to Kazan.
It was used as the Russian place d'armes during the decisive campaign of On 16 June , Ivan led a strong Russian army towards Kazan.
The last siege of the Tatar capital commenced on 30 August. Under the supervision of Prince Alexander Gorbaty-Shuisky , the Russians used battering rams and a siege tower , undermining and cannons.
The Russians also had the advantage of efficient military engineers. The city's water supply was blocked and the walls were breached.
Kazan finally fell on 2 October, its fortifications were razed and much of the population massacred. Many Russian prisoners and slaves were released.
Ivan celebrated his victory over Kazan by building several churches with oriental features, most famously Saint Basil's Cathedral on Red Square in Moscow.
The fall of Kazan was only the beginning of a series of so-called " Cheremis wars". The attempts of the Moscow government to gain a foothold on the Middle Volga kept provoking uprisings of local peoples, which was suppressed only with great difficulty.
In campaigns in and , Russian troops conquered the Astrakhan Khanate at the mouths of the Volga River, and the new Astrakhan fortress was built in by Ivan Vyrodkov to replace the old Tatar capital.
The annexation of the Tatar khanates meant the conquest of vast territories, access to large markets and control of the entire length of the Volga River.
Subjugating Muslim khanates turned Muscovy into an empire. After his conquest of Kazan, Ivan is said to have ordered the crescent, a symbol of Islam, to be placed underneath the Christian cross on the domes of Orthodox Christian churches.
The results presaged the many disasters to come. A plan to unite the Volga and Don by a canal was detailed in Constantinople. Early in , Ivan's ambassadors concluded a treaty at Constantinople that restored friendly relations between the Sultan and the Tsar.
In , Ivan launched the Livonian War in an attempt to gain access to the Baltic Sea and its major trade routes. The war ultimately proved unsuccessful and stretched on for 24 years and engaging the Kingdom of Sweden , the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Teutonic Knights of Livonia.
The prolonged war had nearly destroyed the economy, and the Oprichnina had thoroughly disrupted the government. Ivan's realm was being squeezed by two of the time's great powers.
After rejecting peace proposals from his enemies, Ivan had found himself in a difficult position by The displaced refugees fleeing the war compounded the effects of the simultaneous drought, and the exacerbated war engendered epidemics causing much loss of life.
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Hermes Paketshop. DHL Packstation. DHL Paketshop. Angebote der aktuellen Woche. Möbel Kraft. Telekom Shop. In German Kurrent writing, the superscripted e was simplified to two vertical dashes, which have further been reduced to dots in both handwriting and German typesetting.
Although the two dots of umlaut look like those in the diaeresis trema , the two have different origins and functions.
When it is not possible to use the umlauts for example, when using a restricted character set the characters Ä, Ö, Ü, ä, ö, ü should be transcribed as Ae, Oe, Ue, ae, oe, ue respectively, following the earlier postvocalic- e convention; simply using the base vowel e.
However, such transcription should be avoided if possible, especially with names. Names often exist in different variants, such as "Müller" and "Mueller", and with such transcriptions in use one could not work out the correct spelling of the name.
Automatic back-transcribing is not only wrong for names. Consider, for example, das neue Buch "the new book". The word neü does not exist in German.
Furthermore, in northern and western Germany, there are family names and place names in which e lengthens the preceding vowel by acting as a Dehnungs-e , as in the former Dutch orthography, such as Straelen , which is pronounced with a long a , not an ä.
Similar cases are Coesfeld and Bernkastel-Kues. Uppercase umlauts were dropped because they are less common than lowercase ones especially in Switzerland.
Geographical names in particular are supposed to be written with A, O, U plus e , except Österreich.
The omission can cause some inconvenience, since the first letter of every noun is capitalized in German. Unlike in Hungarian , the exact shape of the umlaut diacritics — especially when handwritten — is not important, because they are the only ones in the language not counting the tittle on i and j.
In rare cases, the n was underlined. The breved u was common in some Kurrent -derived handwritings; it was mandatory in Sütterlin. The German spelling reform of somewhat reduced usage of this letter in Germany and Austria.
It is not used in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. The proper transcription when it cannot be used is ss sz and SZ in earlier times.
Since its use is mandatory in official documentation in Germany when writing geographical names in all-caps.
If the vowel is short, it becomes ss , e. This follows the general rule in German that a long vowel is followed by a single consonant, while a short vowel is followed by a double consonant.
It was already mostly abolished in the late 19th century and finally with the first unified German spelling of in favor of the Adelung spelling.
It is therefore recommended to insert hyphens where required for reading assistance, i. Prozessor-Architektur vs. Greek sigma and sometimes it was historically used in antiqua fonts as well; but it went out of general use in the early s along with the Fraktur typeface.
There are three ways to deal with the umlauts in alphabetic sorting. Microsoft Windows in German versions offers the choice between the first two variants in its internationalisation settings.
A sort of combination of nos. A possible sequence of names then would be "Mukovic; Muller; Müller; Mueller; Multmann" in this order. Eszett is sorted as though it were ss.
Occasionally it is treated as s , but this is generally considered incorrect. Accents in French loanwords are always ignored in collation.
In rare contexts e. As a result, passport, visa, and aircraft ticket may display different spellings of the same name.
The three possible spelling variants of the same name e. Even a spelling change, e. A typical feature of German spelling is the general capitalization of nouns and of most nominalized words.
Compound words , including nouns, are written together, e. This can lead to long words: the longest word in regular use, Rechtsschutzversicherungsgesellschaften  "legal protection insurance companies" , consists of 39 letters.
Even though vowel length is phonemic in German, it is not consistently represented. However, there are different ways of identifying long vowels:.
Even though German does not have phonemic consonant length , there are many instances of doubled or even tripled consonants in the spelling.
A single consonant following a checked vowel is doubled if another vowel follows, for instance i mm er 'always', la ss en 'let'.
These consonants are analyzed as ambisyllabic because they constitute not only the syllable onset of the second syllable but also the syllable coda of the first syllable, which must not be empty because the syllable nucleus is a checked vowel.
Even though German does not have phonemic consonant length, long consonants can occur in composite words when the first part ends in the same consonant the second part starts with, e.
Composite words can also have tripled letters. While this is usually a sign that the consonant is actually spoken long, it does not affect the pronunciation per se: the fff in Sauerstoffflasche 'oxygen bottle', composed of Sauerstoff 'oxygen' and Flasche 'bottle' is exactly as long as the ff in Schaffell.
According to the spelling before , the three consonants would be shortened before vowels, but retained before consonants and in hyphenation, so the word Schifffahrt 'navigation, shipping', composed of Schiff 'ship' and Fahrt 'drive, trip, tour' was then written Schiffahrt , whereas Sauerstoffflasche already had a triple fff.
Mussspiel 'compulsory round' in certain card games, composed of muss 'must' and Spiel 'game'. For some common affixes however, like -graphie or Photo- , it is allowed to use -grafie or Foto- instead.
For some words for which the Germanized form was common even before the reform of , the foreign version is no longer allowed. However, certain older spellings occasionally remain, mostly for decorative reasons, such as Circus instead of Zirkus.